Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M. A. K. Halliday; born 13 April 1925) is a British-born Australian linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistic model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG).[1] Halliday describes language as a semiotic system, “not in the sense of a system of signs, but a systemic resource for meaning”.[2] For Halliday, language is a “meaning potential”; by extension, he defines linguistics as the study of “how people exchange meanings by ‘languaging'”.[3] Halliday describes himself as a generalist, meaning that he has tried “to look at language from every possible vantage point”, and has described his work as “wander[ing] the highways and byways of language”.[4] However, he has claimed that “to the extent that I favoured any one angle, it was the social: language as the creature and creator of human society”.[5]

Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzg031 261-266  First published online: 1 May 2003


Survey research is sometimes regarded as an easy research approach. However, as with any other research approach and method, it is easy to conduct a survey of poor quality rather than one of high quality and real value. This paper provides a checklist of good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research. Its purpose is to assist the novice researcher to produce survey work to a high standard, meaning a standard at which the results will be regarded as credible. The paper first provides an overview of the approach and then guides the reader step-by-step through the processes of data collection, data analysis, and reporting. It is not intended to provide a manual of how to conduct a survey, but rather to identify common pitfalls and oversights to be avoided by researchers if their work is to be valid and credible.

  • data reporting
  • health care surveys
  • methodology
  • questionnaires
  • research design
  • survey methods
  • surveys